By John G. Kemeny, J. Laurie Snell, Anthony W. Knapp

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3 The Problem Jury At issue in Ballew v. 6 In the 1960s and 1970s, United States courts held uniformly that the use of race, gender, religion, or political afﬁliation to bar citizens from jury service would not be tolerated. In one case in 1963 in which I assisted the defense on appeal, we were able to show that only one black had served on some 163 consecutive jury panels. In this case, we were objecting—successfully—to the methods used to select the jury. 4 If, that is, the probability of survival is the same for every patient.

The problem with using the variance is that if our observations, on temperature for example, are in degrees Celsius, then the variance would be expressed in square degrees, whatever these are. More often, we report the standard deviation s, the square root of the variance, as it is in the same units as our observations. Reporting the standard deviation has the further value that if our observations come from a normal distribution like that depicted in Fig. 29, then we know that the probability is 68% that an observation taken from such a population lies within plus or minus one standard deviation of the population mean.

If two events A and B are mutually exclusive, that is, if when one occurs the other cannot possibly occur, then the probability that A or B will occur, P{A or B}, is the sum of their separate probabilities. ) The probability that a six-sided die will show an odd number is thus 3/6 or 1/2. The probability that a six-sided die will not show an even number is equal to the probability that a six-sided die will show an odd number. 1. ” Outcomes are made up of events that may or may not be completely observable.