Crude Oil Waxes, Emulsions, and Asphaltenes by J.R. Becker

By J.R. Becker

Becker explains the actual chemical difficulties linked to waxes and emulsions and the hot applied sciences for therapy of those difficulties. Contents: Petroleum businesses and emulsions Forces fascinated by macroscopic actual habit of emulsions Oil and water emulsion breakers Petroleum businesses and waxes Chemical surfaces Wax crystal order and temperature Wax: actual houses and quantum results Ashaltenes and crude oil Ashaltenes: bulk habit and checking out tools actual homes of treating chemical compounds Appendices

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Example text

Sometimes a light crude oil with a viscosity less than water contains a water emulsion, and the emulsion aggregates greatly 51 Fig. 3–2 Viscosity profiles Section I, Chapter 3 52 Macroscopic Physical Behavior of Emulsions increase the shear stress profile of the system. At another time a heavy crude oil with a viscosity that is much greater than water contains a water emulsion, and the effect of the emulsion aggregates is the reduction of the system shear stress profile. In both cases, the shear stress profile, when plotted against shear rate, produces curves that deviate from smoothness, and the magnitude of these deviations is a measure of the effects of the emulsion aggregates.

When the temperature is increased, this equilibrium balance is shifted, and a more rapid interchange occurs. If the temperature becomes great enough, the solute molecules being transferred will obtain sufficient energy to escape the system, and the internal phase will be depleted of solvent. Meanwhile the external phase is also being depleted of solvent, and the differential rate of solvent loss between the two phases determines the overall system stability. The dynamics of this temperature effect on emulsion aggregates are depicted in Figure 3–3.

In both cases, the shear stress profile, when plotted against shear rate, produces curves that deviate from smoothness, and the magnitude of these deviations is a measure of the effects of the emulsion aggregates. Two factors determining whether or not these systems exhibit dilatant or thixotropic behavior include the concentrations of bipolar emulsifiers present at the interface and the equilibrium vapor pressure of the internal phase. In the case of bipolar emulsifier concentration, a possibility exists for a multilayer emulsion to redistribute the bipolar emulsifier when the system is subjected to shearing forces.

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