By Chris Barker, Chung-chieh Shan
This ebook takes thoughts constructed by way of researchers in theoretical laptop technology and adapts and applies them to the learn of usual language which means. Summarizing greater than a decade of analysis, Chris Barker and Chung-chieh Shan recommend the Continuation speculation: that the that means of a normal language expression can rely on its personal continuation. partly I, the authors enhance a continuation-based idea of scope and quantificational binding and supply an evidence for order sensitivity in scope-related phenomena akin to scope ambiguity, crossover, superiority, reconstruction, adverse polarity licensing, dynamic anaphora, and donkey anaphora. half II outlines an cutting edge substructural common sense for reasoning approximately continuations and proposes an research of the compositional semantics of adjectives resembling 'same' by way of parasitic and recursive scope. It additionally exhibits that convinced situations of ellipsis might be taken care of as anaphora to a continuation, resulting in a brand new reason for a subtype of sluicing referred to as sprouting.
The publication makes an important contribution to paintings on scope, reference, quantification, and different relevant facets of semantics and should attract semanticists in linguistics and philosophy at graduate point and above.
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Additional info for Continuations and Natural Language
3. Using the lower type-shifter, we can complete the derivation of everyone left: (23) S S lower S S ⇒ everyone left everyone left ∀y. [ ] ∀y. left y left y The combinator lowers the category of the sentence back to a plain S. Though lowering operations are not as common in the literature as lifting, the lower type-shifter plays a role here that is closely similar to Groenendijk and Stokhof ’s (1990) ‘↓’ operator. 3. A linear scope bias As we have mentioned, the explanation for crossover will depend heavily on imposing a left-to-right evaluation regime.
The woman who [left] b. the woman who [__ left] c. the woman who [John likes __] We assign the nominal woman to the syntactic category N, with semantic type e → t. In (58a), the complement of the relative pronoun appears to be a verb phrase. In (58c), however, the complement is John likes, a full clause missing a direct object. In Movement as delayed evaluation view of (58c), then, we can reanalyze the VP case in (58a) as a clause missing its subject, as shown in (58b). In the general case, then, relative pronouns take a clause missing a DP somewhere inside.
35) DP S S S S S S S DP S ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ DP DP\DP ⎠ ⎝ (DP\S)/DP DP his mother loves everyone DP = S DP S S his mother loves everyone Combination proceeds smoothly, and the complete string is recognized as a syntactic (and semantic) constituent. However, the result is not a complete derivation of a clause. In particular, it can’t be lowered, since the category of the expression does not match the input to the lower type-shifter. The reason is that lower requires the subcategories in the upper right corner of the tower (here, DP S) and beneath the horizontal line (S) to match.