Constructing a Fiscal-Military State in Eighteenth-Century by Rafael Torres Sánchez

By Rafael Torres Sánchez

Traditionally, Spain has usually been represented as a monetary failure, a nation restricted through its absolutist monarchy and doomed to economic and fiscal failure with no wish of lasting development. The cave in of the Spanish nation at first of the 19th century would appear to endure out this view of the constraints of Spain's absolutist nation, and this old university of suggestion provides the eighteenth century because the final episode in an extended historical past of decline that's without delay associated with the failure of the sixteenth-century Spanish imperial absolutist monarchy. This research presents a special standpoint, suggesting that during truth through the eighteenth century, Spain's fiscal-military country used to be reconstructed and grew. It indicates how the advance of the Spanish fiscal-military country used to be in line with varied development elements to these of the 16th and 17th centuries; and that with this alteration, lots of the state's constitution and its dating with élites and taxpayers altered irrevocably. within the ceaseless look for strategies, the Spanish nation utilized quite a lot of monetary and monetary rules to extend its empire. The examine during this ebook is electrified via present old discussions, and gives a brand new standpoint at the historic debate that regularly compares English 'success' with continental 'failure'.

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On the strength of this they deserve to be granted a more active role in the seventeenth-century political set-up. One consequence of this interaction between arbitristas and politicians was the prominence of fiscal and financial arguments in their writings, both as cause of the economic and social problems and also as solutions (Eiras Roel, 2005). 22 Constructing a Fiscal-Military State in 18th-century Spain Whether fruit of their own negotiation strategies or by influence of the arbitristas’ arguments, the fact is that the main political actors – institutions of each realm, cities, nobles and clergy – incorporated arbitrios-type ideas into their claims and confrontations with the crown (Gelabert, 2001).

The main consequence and the real problem resided in the fact that the entire public credit system created by the Habsburgs was now distorted in favour of these uncontrolled and increasingly uncollateralised juros. Neither the Castilian economy nor the proliferation of taxes and fiscal resources were capable of securing and endorsing this dizzying rise of juros and interest payments. Since juro interest payment depended solely on the fiscal income of the attached revenue, the latter was committed well beyond its possible yield.

According to the calculations made by José Manual Díaz, most of the king’s silver received in Seville was spent on two major items. Firstly defrayment of the ‘financial system’, that is, payment of the monarchy’s bankers, and secondly financing of the ‘imperial system’, in other words, shoring up the home institutions of the American empire. The available figures show that over the course of the seventeenth century there was a sea change. At the beginning of this century the majority of the silver was spent on sustaining the ‘financial system’; as the century progressed there was a shift towards the ‘imperial system’.

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