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Extra info for Computer Networks ISE: A Systems Approach, Fourth Edition
An interesting historical note is that the term “wide area network” was not applied to the first WANs because there was no other sort of network to differentiate them from. When computers were incredibly rare and expensive, there was no point in thinking about how to connect all the computers in the local area—there was only one computer in that area. Only as computers began to proliferate did LANs become necessary, and the term “WAN” was then introduced to describe the larger networks that interconnected geographically distant computers.
Some protocols use an 8-bit field (meaning they can support only 256 high-level protocols), and others use 16- or 32-bit fields. Also, some protocols have a single demultiplexing field in their header, while others have a pair of demultiplexing fields. In the former case, the same demux key is used on both sides of the communication, while in the latter case, each side uses a different key to identify the high-level protocol (or application program) to which the message is to be delivered. 2 OSI Architecture The ISO was one of the first organizations to formally define a common way to connect computers.
The decision as to which packet to send next on a shared link can be made in a number of different ways. 5, the decision would be made by the switch that transmits packets onto the shared link. ) Each switch in a packet-switched network makes this decision independently, on a packet-by-packet basis. One of the issues that faces a network designer is how to make this decision in a fair manner. For example, a switch could be designed to service packets on a first-in-first-out (FIFO) basis. Another approach would be to transmit the packets from each of the different flows that are currently sending data through the switch in a round-robin manner.