By Isabel Stabile, Tim Chard, Gedis Grudzinskas
This article offers a short connection with all vital evidence within the scientific sciences for applicants aiming at a postgraduate qualification in obstetrics and gynaecology, together with these applicants learning for the MRCOG half II exam. the knowledge is gifted in a concise demeanour and covers all crucial elements of the topic. it's going to even be of worth to clinicians as a quick guide.
This quantity will function a important better half to the hugely profitable simple Sciences for Obstetrics and Gynaecology by means of Chard and Lilford, now in its 4th variation.
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Extra resources for Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology
5. 5 after 18 weeks (5% false positives); defmitive diagnosis requires serial measurements; limited role for in utero shunting Inadequate brain growth. subnormal IQ; multifactorial: infections. radiation. mercury. phenytoin; 3% recurrence except in families with autosomal recessive inheritance 80% of open spina bifida have hydrocephaly; 3% recurrence if isolated; aqueduct stenosis (sex-linked linked recessive. 1:2 recurrence in males); poor prognosis; 85% have associated abnormalities. 20% chromosomal abnormalities Choroid plexus cysts disappear by 25 weeks in 90% of cases; porencephalic cysts communicate with cerebral ventricles; prognosis variable Fusion of occiput and cervical vertebrae usuaIly in females Defect in formation of midline structures; 20% have associated chromosomal defects Microcephaly Hydrocephaly Brain cysts Iniencephaly Holoprosencephaly 4.
It affects multigravidae more than primigravidae; the frequency and severity increase with maternal age. It often recurs, is familial and is thought to be due to an inherited latent hypertensive tendency. These women have a higher incidence of hypertension in later life. Eclampsia is very rare without proteinuria. The typical glomerular lesions of pre-eclampsia are absent. Pre-eclampsia This is hypertension with proteinuria in previously normotensive women. It complicates 5% of all pregnancies (10% of primigravidae).
4. Continued ~ ~ fi: ~ I:' 8- ~ *. or:r !!!. (") 9' r;. ~ Females> Males c. 5 MoM: 90% anencephaly, 80% open spina bifida, 3% normals (false positives) False negatives: <10% for anencephaly, <20% for open spina bifida Diagnosis 3. GIT abnormalities a. 7 2. 7 Maternal digitalisation is effective in fetal dysrythmia Wide temporal, ethnic, geographic variation 3-9/1000 live births in UK Incidence b. 45% spina bifida all congenital anomalies) a. 50% anencephaly 1. 5. Clinically important multisystem abnormalities tf t t 9 () 1:10000 2-5/10000 b.