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The roles of conjugated carbohydrates include antigen markers, nerve sheathing, and lubricants. Several chemical properties of carbohydrates are important to the clinical chemist in the identification and measurement of carbohydrates in body fluids. Carbohydrates that have an active ketone or aldehyde functional group can act as reducing substances. This property is used in many methods in the determination of glucose, fructose, maltose, galactose, and lactose. Some carbohydrates are nonreducing substances.
Respiratory tract. helps maintain the acid-base balance in the body. The respiratory tract includes the air passages of the nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and air sacs or alveoli. ) Oxygen from the environment travels through the bronchioles to alveolar ducts and into the alveoli, where it is absorbed into blood, while carbon dioxide is released from blood to the environment along the reverse route. Figure 1–12 depicts the respiratory system. Measurement of arterial blood gases helps assess the function of the respiratory system, as well as the circulatory system.
It is also useful when characterizing the type of enzyme inhibition that may be present in a system. Lineweaver and Burk created a linear transformation of this kinetic conversion of substrate to product that helps to identify the effect of inhibition more easily. Figure 1–8 shows the Lineweaver-Burk relationship of substrate concentration to velocity. When substrate is in excess and pH, temperature, and activator concentrations are held at optimum conditions, the velocity of the enzyme catalysis of substrate to product is dependent only on enzyme activity.