Carbon Cycling in the Baltic Sea by Karol Kulinski, Janusz Pempkowiak

By Karol Kulinski, Janusz Pempkowiak

The Baltic Sea is a space widely explored by means of the oceanographers. as a result it really is the most frequently defined marine parts within the clinical literature. even though, there are nonetheless a number of fields that are poorly investigated and said by way of scientists. one in all them is the carbon cycle of the Baltic Sea. even though it is thought the shelf seas are accountable for approximately 20% of all marine carbon dioxide uptake, whereas they represent in basic terms 7% of the complete sea floor, nonetheless a systematic debate exists at the function of the Baltic Sea within the international carbon cycle. “Carbon cycle of the Baltic Sea” is meant to be a complete presentation and dialogue of cutting-edge learn by means of biogeochemists taken with the Baltic Sea carbon cycle examine. This paintings offers either qualitative and quantitative descriptions of the most carbon flows within the Baltic Sea in addition to their attainable shifts prompted by way of climatic and worldwide change.

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Energy Policy 35:5384–5392 38 2 Climate and Carbon Cycle Benner R (2002) Chemical composition and reactivity. In: Hansell DA, Carlson CA (eds) Biogeochemistry of marine dissolved organic matter. Elsevier Science, San Diego, 59–90 Bergström S, Alexandersson H, Carlsson B, Josefsson W, Karlsson K-G, Westring G (2001) Climate and hydrology of the Baltic basin. In: Wulff FV, Rahm LA, Larsson P (eds) A system analysis of the Baltic Sea. Springer, Berlin, pp 75–112 Bindoff NL, Willebrand J, Artale V, Cazenave A, Gregory J, Gulev S, Hanawa K, Le Quéré C, Levitus S, Nojiri Y, Shum CK, Talley LD, Unnikrishnan A (2007) Observations: oceanic climate change and sea level.

The complexity of mechanisms determining functioning of the shelf sea ecosystems results in significant errors of the estimates regarding CO2 absorption/ emission. Insufficient knowledge regarding the matter cycle in shelf seas has been manifested in subsequent data reports, that significantly vary between each other, even if they concern the same areas (Chen et al. 2003; Borges et al. 2005; Chen and Borges 2009). In the context of the examples cited above, it should be assumed that the Baltic Sea, characterized by intensive phytoplankton activity occurring from spring to fall, additionally supplied by a significant load of nutrients (HELCOM 2009), is a basin that effectively absorbs CO2.

This type of sediments is characterized by high organic carbon concentrations, reaching 10–11% in the uppermost sediment layers. Such high concentrations result from sedimentation of material that is rich in organic matter, and the permanent oxygen deficit in the sediments. The absence of oxygen slows down the mineralization rate of organic matter. The regions characterized by oxygen deficit and substantial sedimentation include: the Gotland Deep, the Gdansk Deep and the Bornholm Deep, where more than 50% of the Baltic total organic matter is deposited (Emeis et al.

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