Britain and the Onset of Modernization in Brazil 1850-1914 by Richard Graham

By Richard Graham

This can be a designated learn of British effect in Brazil as a subject in the better tale of modernization. The British have been concerned at key issues within the preliminary phases of modernization. Their carry upon the import-export economic climate tended to decelerate industrialization, and there have been different parts within which their presence acted as a brake upon Brazilian modernization. however the British additionally fostered swap. British railways supplied basic stimulus to the expansion of espresso exports, and because the British didn't monopolize espresso creation, a wide percentage of the earnings remained in Brazilian fingers for different makes use of. additionally, the burgeoning espresso financial system shattered conventional fiscal, social and political relationships, establishing up the way in which for different parts of progress. The British function was once no longer restricted to fiscal improvement. additionally they contributed to the expansion of 'a smooth world-view'. Spencerianism and the assumption of growth, for example, weren't unique and meaningless imports, yet an essential component of the transformation Brazil used to be experiencing.

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Ibid. pp. 184, 185, 186, 195; the last phrase suggests that Nelson Werneck Sodre, Historia da burguesia brasileira, Retratos do Brasil, 22 (Rio: Civiliza^ao Brasileira, 1964), pp. 49-50, is correct in suggesting that there was a more fully developed artisanry than is generally thought. Adolphe d'Assier, Le Bresil contemporain: races, moeurs, institutions, pay sage (Paris: Durand et Lauriel, 1867), p. 137; Scully, Brazil, p. 11; Jose Marques Lisboa (Brazilian minister in England) to Paulino de Sousa, London, 8 Nov.

During the same period the value of coffee exports went from ^21*5 million and ^22*7 million to ^48*7 million. 1 Increasing export trade stimulated commercial growth and the rise of new urban groups. The Commercial Code of 1850, by standardizing the rules regarding bankruptcy, contracts, mortgages, and like matters, made it much easier and less risky to engage in commercial activity. The end of the slave trade that same year is said to have drawn into other enterprises a good deal of capital once lent to slave traders.

Rio: Jose Olympio, 1955), 1, 230-1; Sodre, Historia da burguesia, p p . 182, 185. Novidades, 28 Feb. 1888, quoted by Stanley J. : Harvard U n i v . Press, 1957), p . 252. Monbeig, Pionniers et planteurs, pp. 121-5, 128-9; Celso Furtado, The Economic Growth of Brazil: a Survey from Colonial to Modern Times, transl. Ricardo W . de Aguiar and Eric Charles Drysdale (Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press, 1963), p. 126; Fernando Henrique Cardoso, * Condicoes sociais da industrializacao de Sao Paulo', Revista brasiliense, no.

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