By John Shore
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As dyeing proceeds there is some migration from wool to nylon until the final partition is reached, but this is a different equilibrium at the lower temperature than in conventional dyeing at the boil. In general, partition favours the wool and solidity is difficult to attain. This difficulty can be overcome, however, using a specific equalising agent in place of the conventional anionic agent normally employed when dyeing at the boil . When dyes of high substantivity are applied below the boil, surface dyeing of the wool occurs to give dyeings of inadequate wet fastness.
Colour with a white reserve is obtained with nylon and polyester and shadow effects with the acid-dyeable nylon variants. Basic-dyeable nylon or polyester cannot be included, however, because basic dyes do not meet the unusually high light fastness standards specified by the car manufacturers . 53 Contents Home 54 PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN AND COLOURING OF DIFFERENTIAL-DYEING BLENDS Four types of nylon yarn with dyeing properties different from those of the parent homopolymer were introduced in the 1970s for weaving, warp-knitting and weft-knitting, as well as carpets.
Nonionic agents are by far the most common anti-precipitants and their solubilising power by disaggregation is well known. 1 Chemical types of anti-precipitant [4,5] Type Composition OCH2CH2 units per molecule Nonionic Fatty alcohol or alkylphenol polyoxyethylenes ≥20 Block copolymers of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide ≥40 Weakly cationic Coco, oleyl, soya or tallow fatty amine polyoxyethylenes ≥20 Weakly anionic Fatty alcohol or alkylphenol polyoxyethylene sulphates ≥3 Weakly anionic Fatty alcohol or alkylphenol polyoxyethylene phosphates 4–12 Weakly anionic Alkali metal, amine or alkanolamine salts of fatty alcohol or alkylphenol polyoxyethylene acetates ≥5 Alkyl chloride or dialkyl sulphate salts of quaternary ammonium polyoxyethylene sulphates or phosphates ≥15 Nonionic Amphoteric Numerous nonionic and weakly cationic surfactants with at least 20 oxyethylene units per molecule are available, as well as block copolymers of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide.