By Alan Trounson, Roger Gosden, Ursula Eichenlaub-Ritter
The human egg - the rarest and so much quickly getting older cellphone within the physique - is a subject of excessive clinical research. Assisted replica clinics are consistently vying to enhance good fortune premiums - opting for the simplest gametes is a key step during this approach. This re-creation of what one reviewer of the 1st version defined as 'possibly the definitive paintings at the oocyte' covers the improvement, biology and pathology of the oocyte, and applied sciences to govern, improve and keep watch over fertility. those applied sciences are used to beat infertility, keep away from inherited illnesses, and create genetically engineered embryos from stem cells and cloning. This development could were most unlikely with no the myriad of medical and technical advancements lined during this publication. the recent version is punctiliously up-to-date and comprises significant new study on reprogramming, oocyte molecular improvement, cryopreservation and viability. we're in intriguing occasions for the egg
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Extra resources for Biology and Pathology of the Oocyte: Role in Fertility, Medicine and Nuclear Reprograming
17. Byskov AG, Hoyer PE, Yding AC, et al. No evidence for the presence of oogonia in the human ovary after their final clearance during the first two years of life. Hum Reprod 2011; 26(8): 2129–39. 18. Hoyer PE, Byskov AG, Mollgard K. Stem cell factor and c-Kit in human primordial germ cells and fetal ovaries. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2005; 234(1–2): 1–10. 19. Pesce M, Canipari R, Ferri GL, Siracusa G, De Felici M. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) stimulates adenylate cyclase and promotes proliferation of mouse primordial germ cells.
The role of RA was recently evaluated in respect to meiotic initiation in fetal human gonads . Interestingly, it was found that the enzymes needed for synthesizing RA (ALDH1A1, -A2, -A3) are present in both sexes in late first trimester gonads, at the time when the very first meiotic cells are found in the ovary . 4 Inner part of the cortex of an ovary from a human fetus, 14 weeks pc, showing a very small follicle surrounded by darkly stained somatic cells, and groups of pachytene and pachytene/early diplotene oocytes.
At the same time, the RNA-binding factor, Dazl, is also expressed, and this appears to be essential for germ cell specification in both males and females . Dazl expression is coincident with expression of at least 13 other genes, including some that code for translation factors (Eif3g, Eif4b, Eif4h), and other RNA-binding proteins (Igf2bp1, Cpeb2) , collectively suggesting a requirement for RNA involvement and/or control of translation in germ cell specification. Here, once again, gene ontology can provide vital clues as to the functional requirements for a given process.