Beyond Positivism: Critical Reflections on International by Claire Turenne Sjolander

By Claire Turenne Sjolander

This paintings adopts the idea that the metatheoretical debates approximately positivists and post-positivists have reached an deadlock; it means that an process pushed by means of theoretical reflexivity bargains a foundation on which replacement understandings of diplomacy will be built.

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This model correlates rational self-interested calculation with morality and emotion with immorality, such that moral action in the anarchic self-help international realm requires, as Peterson (1989a) remarks, the unachievable triumph of reason over passion; the masculine-identified over the female-identified. In contrast, an alternative female-identified model of human nature views the self rather as connected, interdependent, and inter-related. Associated with maternal thinking and an ethic of care, individuals are not viewed as equal, but rather unique; each with his or her special needs.

As a corrective to essential man, much of the early feminist scholarship in the social sciences substituted essential woman in its place. In international relations, this approach has dominated much of the feminist work on women and peace and remains highly problematic. Sarah Ruddick (1983) has questioned whether the equating of women with peace and men with war, men with the role of the protector and women as the protected, does not, in fact, reinforce gender stereotypes. Such essentialist stereotyping denies the fact that "women all over the world have and do participate in the war industry as prostitutes, wives, widows, social workers, nurses, defense workers or even mothers of soldiers" (Bulbeck, 1988:97).

See Keohane (1989). 8. Kenneth Waltz (1979) is the best example of this trend. 9. The Marxist tradition in international relations broadly groups together the Marxist and neo-Marxist theories of imperialism, the internationalization of capital, dependencia, underdevelopment, and Wallerstein's World Systems perspectives. Its set of concerns include the study of imperialism, the dynamics and demise of the international capitalist economy, the structural dependency of Third World political economies, movements of national liberation, and the prospects for socialism.

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