By Dr. Kamalesh Kumar
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Extra resources for Basic Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering
Research is continuing in this area. These tests can generally be classified into two groups. First group of tests are those that apply dynamic loads. Second group of tests are those that apply loads that are cyclic but slow enough that inertial effects do not occur. The most widely used of the laboratory tests that apply dynamic loads is the resonantcolumn method. In this test a column of soil is subjected to an oscillating longitudinal or torsional load. The frequency is varied until resonance occur.
These were rich in compression energy and poor in shear energy. Consequently, it is quite difficult to pick out the S-wave arrivals in this case. Hence, explosives should not be used as energy sources for cross-hole S-wave velocity measurements. ASTM D 4428/D 4428M, Cross-Hole Seismic Testing, describes the details of this test. In the down-hole method the sensors are placed at various depths in the boring. Furthermore, the source of energy is above the sensors - usually at the surface. A source rich in S-waves should be used.
Walls make a cracking sound. Standing motor cars rock noticeably. V Reactions: Felt by nearly everyone, many awakened. Damage: Some dishes, windows, etc. broken. A few instances of cracked plaster and unstable objects overturned. Disturbances of trees, poles and other tall objects sometimes noticed. Pendulam clocks may stop. VI Reactions: Felt by everyone. Many people are frightened and run outdoors. Damage: There is slightly structural damage. Some heavy furntiture is moved, and there are some instances of fallen plaster or damaged chimneys.