By David A. Scott, Jerry Podany, Brian B. Considine
The maintenance and learn of metals by way of the issues of decay and applicable equipment of exam and remedy more and more contain collaboration among scientists and conservators. The 16 essays during this quantity specialize in genuine gadgets from quite a lot of sessions and cultures. individuals comprise Thomas Chase of the Freer Gallery in Washington, D.C., at the know-how of chinese language bronze casting; Paola Fiorentino of the Istituto Centrale del Restauro in Rome at the conservation of the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius; Knud Holm of the nationwide Museum of Denmark at the recovery of nineteenth-century zinc sculptures; Ian MacLeod of the Western Australian Maritime Museum at the conservation of metals from underwater websites; and W. Andrew Oddy of the British Museum at the use of gold foil and twine in the course of the Iron Age in southern Africa.
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Extra info for Ancient & Historic Metals: Conservation and Scientific Research
The use of demineralized water avoided any damage to the gilding and the more stable corrosion patinas. The twelve areas chosen had the following characteristics: • relatively compact and sufficiently visible gilding • gilding clearly covered with black alterations • alteration both exposed and not exposed to rain • zones with geodetic lines • alterations where rainwater converged • alterations in the insides of castings Washing was carried out with standard methods, using 100 ml fractions of FIGURE 3.
This possibility seems unlikely. First, the transformation of basic copper carbonates and sulfates into copper sulfides requires the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and a humus-rich anaerobic environment. This condition is certainly not fulfilled in layer 1, which is sandy. Second, one would expect to see granular sulfide layers in the metal cross sections and not compact ones, which adhere closely to the metal. 3. Copper sulfides were formed under anaerobic conditions and subsequently oxidized to basic copper carbonates and sulfates.
FIGURE 10a, b. Chalcopyrite corrosion layer on a pin-needle showing (a) the apparent good condition of the underlying bronze metal, and (b) detail of chalcopyrite corrosion layer typical for a lake a patina. Lab MAH 87-196. b 45 SCHWEIZER 2. Malachite, antlerite, or posnjakite was formed and subsequently reduced to copper sulfides. This possibility seems unlikely. First, the transformation of basic copper carbonates and sulfates into copper sulfides requires the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and a humus-rich anaerobic environment.