By Klaus Bange, Wilfried Heimerl, Dieter Krause (auth.), Dr. Hans Bach, Prof. Dr. Dieter Krause (eds.)
This ebook is one among a sequence reporting on foreign learn and improvement actions performed through the Schott team businesses. With the sequence Schott goals to supply an summary of its actions for scientists, engineers, and bosses from all branches of all over the world the place glass and glass ceramics are of curiosity. each one quantity starts with a bankruptcy delivering a normal notion of the present difficulties, effects, and tendencies in terms of the topic treated.
This quantity lays the principles for
- supervision of creation strategies, together with uncooked fabrics, evaporation from the soften, exhaust gases, and environmental concerns;
- troubleshooting in case of glass defects together with learn for the layout of ideal (in the ppm variety) or a minimum of high-yield processes;
- knowing the starting place of purchaser court cases due to unfulfilled expectancies relating fabric houses or product behaviour.
The publication is conceived as a monograph. the person chapters, despite the fact that, are written via top Schott specialists at the corresponding topics. Many figures, tables, and examples are selected to introduce the reader to thin-film technology and technology.
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Additional info for Analysis of the Composition and Structure of Glass and Glass Ceramics
The following decomposition methods, or combinations of methods, have proved to be good in routine use. 1) and evaporated to dryness in a fume chamber that must be specially authorized for use of HF jHCl0 4 fumes because of the explosion hazard. 1. 5 1 1 5 5 10 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 10 2 2 5 10 then digested once more with the same volume of perchloric acid, evaporated to dryness, and dissolved in hydrochloric acid, c(HCl) = 6 mol L -1. Finally, the solution is rinsed into a beaker or a volumetrie flask to determine the element concentrations.
The composition of the gases in bubbles can be determined by gas chromatography (GC) or mass spectrometry (MS). For this type of destructive analysis the bubbles are prepared so that they can be broken in achamber with carrier gas or in vacuum. g. light microscope) Detection EPMA 100 % 10 % 1% c 0. lm Size of defect 1 mm 10mm Fig. 6. Problem-oriented selection of analytical methods up to 50 bubbles have to be analysed in one day. A non-destructive analysis method is Raman spectroscopy. It is not used for routine investigations because the measurements are very time-consuming (Sect.
Washington, DC 1992) pp. 42 G. Wünsch, U. Licht-Klagge: "Expertensysteme für die Chemie - Idee und Realisierung in der Analytik", VCH Nachr. Chem. Tech. Lab. 43 H. Bach, D. C. Wright: "Diffraction studies of glass structure: the first 70 years", Glass Chem. Phys. 45 D. W. -H. Hellwege: Einführung in die Festkörperphysik (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1976) p. C. ): Spectroscopic Methods in Mineralogy and Geology, Reviews in Mineralogy, Vol. 18 (Mineral. Soc. R. J. Kreidl: Advances in Structural Analysis, Glass Seience and Technology, Vol.