An Encyclopaedia of the History of Technology by Ian McNeil

By Ian McNeil

* 22 sections hide the total box of the background of expertise and every part summarises the advance of its topic from the earliest instances to the current day* Written with out pointless jargon* 2 wide indexes of Names and subject matters* Usefully illustrated with one hundred fifty black & white photos and line drawings to give an explanation for key advances`Contain[s] an unlimited volume of trustworthy info over a really huge box. it's definitely a piece of which I shall myself make widespread use ... it merits to discover a spot ... in each reference library.' - instances greater schooling Supplement`The insurance is great ... a most precious single-volume resource which for its comprehensiveness and simplicity of reference will earn its position in either professional and normal reference collections.' - Reference Reviews`Informative and finished, extraordinary in its insurance ... covers each element of expertise from the Stone Age to the gap Age ... will surely support readers to get a grip on and consider of an incredible variety of matters ... a useful and functional addition to most department bookshelves or libraries.' - New Civil Engineer`The authors represented during this booklet are to be congratulated for his or her readable and trustworthy surveys of the prior and current prestige of the foremost components the place mankind has harnessed technological know-how for the creation of priceless items and processes.' - selection

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This mill had a vertical wheel driving the horizontal upper millstone through lanthorn and trundle gears. However, the Romans were well supplied with slaves and hence not encouraged to invest in labour-saving mechanization. Watermills did not increase greatly in number until the fourth and fifth centuries AD, towards the end of the era of the Roman Empire. By the time of the Domesday Book, completed in AD 1086, this survey was to record over 5600 in use in England alone, mostly used for corn milling but possibly a few for ore crushing and for driving forge hammers.

Mammoth, woolly rhinoceros, bison, reindeer, horse, cave lion and bear have all been found in these paintings, mostly of men fighting with bows and arrows, credited to the people of Bir-el-Ater, Tunisia, in the Middle to Late Palaeolithic period. Another rock painting in Spain shows a woman collecting honey with a pot or basket and using a grass rope ladder, another early invention extant in this period. THE SECOND AGE: THE FARMER, THE SMITH AND THE WHEEL The change from nomadic hunter to settled agricultural villager did not happen overnight, even over centuries.

This enabled truly portable clocks and watches to be made for the first time. Huygens again was one of the first to make a watch with a balance spring, but this was probably not until 1674, a little later than Hooke’s invention. At last, with a main spring and a balance spring, a timepiece could now be made entirely independent of gravity. Accurate clocks that could run at sea were essential to mariners for establishing longitude. Such a clock was made by John Harrison in 1761 and enabled him to win a £10,000 prize offered by the British government.

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