By David Jackson, Asim Kurjak
Because the use of three-d ultrasound in medical perform raises, the necessity for a reference overlaying this and different rising applied sciences additionally raises. The ebook offers three-d ultrasound pictures in complete color observed via large captions and professional textual remark. It offers authoritative assurance of the most recent advancements in third-dimensional ultrasound to be used in obstetrics and gynecology and highlights state of the art applied sciences reminiscent of 4-dimensional ultrasound
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Extra info for An atlas of three- and four-dimensional sonography in obstetrics and gynecology
The implementation of the 3D display permits the physician to view structures in three dimensions interactively, rather than having to assemble the sectional images mentally12 The 3D power Doppler system may thus improve the information available on tumor vascularity and speed up the entire patient management process13 46 AN ATLAS OF THREE-AND FOUR-DIMENSIONAL SONOGRAPHY IN OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Figure 4 Three-dimensional scan of an ovarian endometrioma. Blood clots within the cystic cavity are clearly visualized While 2D color Doppler was useful in detecting vascularized structures, 3D power Doppler is excellent in the study of vascular morphology.
If used together with 3D morphological ultrasound assessment, enhanced 3D power Doppler imaging might precisely discriminate benign from malignant adnexal lesions. CLINICAL EXPERIENCE OF THE ZAGREB GROUP In the following section, the advantages of 3D ultrasound and 3D power Doppler imaging in preoperative assessment of adnexal masses are presented. The possible positive impact of 3D ultrasound, 3D power Doppler and contrast-enhanced 3D power Doppler imaging on early detection of ovarian cancer is also discussed.
Furthermore, shadowing caused by the uterine fibroids, an irregular endometrial lining and decreased volume of the uterine cavity (in cases of intrauterine adhesions) are obvious limitations of 3D ultrasound. More recently, 3D power Doppler was used to detect vascularization of the uterine septa in a combined angio and gray rendering mode (Figures 32 and 33). This approach allows simultaneous analysis of the morphology, texture and vascularization. THREE-AND FOUR-DIMENSIONAL ULTRASOUND IN HUMAN REPRODUCTION 35 Figure 25 Normal secretory endometrium demonstrated in the coronal plane.