Advances in Cancer Therapy by Hala Gali-Muhtasib

By Hala Gali-Muhtasib

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2009). , 2008). Interestingly, when treated with chemotherapeutic agents, there is a significantly enhanced membrane vesicle secretion in chemoresistant cells compared to chemosensitive cells. , 2005). , 2006b) treatment lead to DNA-damaging conditions. In this state, the p53 pathway is activated, leading, among various other changes physiologically, to an induced expression of the transmembrane protein tumor suppressoractivated pathway 6 (TSAP6). , 2008). Normally, the secretion of exosomes in various cell types happens at a low rate.

2003). Other triggers, such as cellular depolarization, have also been described. These events culminate in the fusion of MVB membrane with the cell membrane and subsequent exosome release into the extracellular space. , 2004). , 2011). As will be described in other sections of this chapter, exosomes influence immune cells both in normal and abnormal states such as cancer. , 2006). In this regard, exosomes mimic viral particles by directing host cellular processes to its advantage. , 2008). It is of interest to better understand the precise pro-inflammatory and thrombotic roles of exosomes and potentially use them as therapeutic targets in these conditions.

Some of these proteins are shared by exosomes derived from different sources and used to identify these vesicles during proteomic analysis. , 2011). Fig. 2. Protein loading and release by exosomes. Endocytosed surface proteins as well as a subset of cytosolic proteins are taken by the endosomal system. Those destined for release as exosomes or for lysosomal degradation are sorted into lumenal vesicles called multivesicular bodies (MVB). 1 ESCRT-dependent protein sorting The specific protein content of exosomes can be exploited to identify these exosomes and the cell-types from which they are derived via proteomic analysis.

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