By Simon Collier
Supplying an outline of Chilean heritage for the final reader in addition to the professional, this article employs basic and secondary fabrics to investigate the nation's political, fiscal, and social evolution from independence to 2002. in contrast to different works, the amount examines intensive the latest occasions of Chile's background: the diversification of its financial system, unfold of democratic associations, development of public wellbeing and fitness, and emergence of a wealthy highbrow tradition. First variation Hb (1996): 0-521-56075-6 First variation Pb (1996): 0-521-56827-7
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Extra resources for A History of Chile, 1808-2002
136 (1968), 315–22. Escritos de don Manuel de Salas, I, 155. ) At other times the river could flood disastrously, as it still regularly does: a new embankment running thirty blocks down one side of the town was opened in 1804. The poverty of Chile, as well as its earthquakes (Santiago’s worst was in May 1647), delayed the appearance of anything more than the simplest architecture, but by 1800 the capital was endowed with a few respectable buildings. The most respectable, undoubtedly, was the Casa de la Moneda (more simply “La Moneda”), the austerely beautiful neoclassical palace which from 1805 housed the colonial mint and from 1846 the republican president – the Chilean White House.
Relations between Spanish Chile and the Amerindian territory were entrusted to specially appointed officials, the so-called comisarios de naciones (“commissioners of nations”) and their subordinate capitanes de amigos (“captains of friends”). There were also regular parlamentos (“ceremonial parleys”) between colonial officials and the Mapuche, the first of which occurred in 1641. By the end of colonial times there may have been as many as 150,000 Araucanians. Their way of life had changed as a result of continuous contact with the Spanish colony, especially through the flourishing cross-frontier trade mentioned earlier.
The most prosperous smaller farms were to be found in areas like the Aconcagua Valley, close to the urban market, such as it was, of Santiago. In the immediate neighborhood of the towns, small farms known (from a Quechua term) as chacras were also common; many of these belonged to hacendados, but a modestly flourishing semi-independent peasant economy seems to have existed also, supplying meat and vegetables to the townships and contributing wheat to the export trade. In the long run, this potential “bold peasantry” found its scope greatly reduced by the growing predominance of the hacienda.