A Glossary of Semantics and Pragmatics (Glossaries in by Alan Cruse

By Alan Cruse

This easy-to-use consultant illuminates key techniques and phrases in semantics and pragmatics and the learn of that means because it is conveyed via language.

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This duality is specified in a ‘generative lexicon’ under the formal role, and is conventionally indicated thus: [physical object•text] (hence the name ‘dot-object’). Each of these aspects of meaning has a different specification under the remaining qualia roles. For instance, under the constitutive role, the parts of a text are different from the parts of a physical book; under the telic role, the function of a text is to be read, but the function of the physical book is to give the text a physical form; under the agentive role, a book as text originates in a process of writing, but the physical book originates in a process of printing, binding, and so on.

In each case, the word high has a (different) special meaning, and this meaning is different from the default meaning present in, for instance, a high wall. ) 28 A GLOSSARY OF SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS committedness (in antonyms) see under polar antonyms common ground This refers to aspects of knowledge that participants in an act of communication assume to be shared and therefore do not need to be spelled out. It includes what can be perceived in the immediate context, together with knowledge of the language, general world knowledge, shared attitudes, and so on.

The following are some of the relevant correspondences between these domains: journey beginning of journey end of journey reaching destination crossroads going uphill obstacles fellow-travellers life birth death achieving aim point of choice finding life difficult difficulties partners, colleagues, friends These correspondences allow expressions such as the following to be interpreted: My son is just beginning life’s journey. 32 A GLOSSARY OF SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS His progress has been a bit slow, but I think he’s now got where he wants to be.

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