A Glossary of Phonology (Glossaries in Linguistics) by Philip Carr

By Philip Carr

This pocket-sized alphabetical advisor introduces the variety of phenomena studied in phonology and the most theoretical frameworks for undertaking phonological research. The entries are a concise and transparent evaluation of 1 of the most parts in linguistic research.

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Declarative A distinction is often made between an essentially static way of conceiving of phonological generalisations, and an essentially dynamic way of stating those generalisations. The static way involves stating what the well-formed phonological structures are in a given language (phonotactic constraints are an example). This kind of approach is said to be declarative. The dynamic way leans on the notion of phonological processes, such as the idea of syllabification processes which actively build syllable structure.

Sounds produced this way are called fricatives. Examples are the [θ] in thin, the [f] in fin, the [s] in sin and the [ʃ] in shin. Open approximation is an even less extreme degree of stricture: the articulators do not come close enough to cause friction. Sounds produced this way are called approximants and vowels. Examples 40 A GLOSSARY OF PHONOLOGY are the approximants [j] and [w] in yes and go, and the vowels [i:] and [ɑ:] in see and far in certain varieties of English. Degree of stricture is also known as manner of articulation.

Dependency relations are postulated to hold between elements within segments, between the constituents within a syllable, and between the syllables within a foot. In this framework, elements cluster together to form gestures. dependent see head derivation Models of phonological organisation which posit more than one level of representation, and which map one level on to another, contain appeal to the notion of a derivation, in which one level is derived from the other. A simple example would be a phonemic model in which the phonetic level is derived from the phonemic level, as in the derivation of the phonetic representation [p υ ] from the phonemic representation /pυl/ (pull).

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